‘To His Love’
He’s gone, and all our plans
Are useless indeed.
We’ll walk no more on Cotswolds
Where the sheep feed
Quietly and take no heed.
His body that was so quick
Is not as you
Knew it, on Severn River
Under the blue
Driving our small boat through.
You would not know him now…
But still he died
Nobly, so cover him over
With violets of pride
Purple from Severn side.
Cover him, cover him soon!
And with thick-set
Masses of memoried flowers-
Hide that red wet
Thing I must somehow forget.
This poem is a monologue, in which one soldier speaks to the fiancé or girlfriend of a dead soldier of his death— mourning his loss and regretting that he will never have the pleasure of the dead soldier’s company again. The poem was inspired by the supposed death of Ivor Gurney’s best friend Willy Harvey in August 1916. Reality told a happier story than the drama described in the poem: Harvey was not in fact killed, but had been made a prisoner of war, returning to his fiancé Sarah Kane at the end of the war.
STRUCTURE NOTE: Four stanzas of five lines, comprising three lines of free verse (ABC) and a rhyming couplet (DD). One of the most interesting things about this poem, however, is its exemplary use of alliteration (repetition of consonants for effect) and assonance (repetition of vowel sounds for effect). It is a musical poem, structured by soft sound, throughout using the ‘oh’, ‘oo’, ‘uh’ sounds denoted by the letter ‘O’, but also using ‘I’ and ‘E’ sounds to create different effects. For example, the effect of the varied ‘O’ sounds is mournful; the drawn-out vowels of ‘Ee’ slow the pace of the poem down. Alliteration, found in all four stanzas, also provides an elusive rhythm to the poem. In the first verse, for example, sibilance gives the opening a sound of susurration, of whispering.
Ivor Gurney: A Gloucester man, Ivor Gurney was a talented young composer before joining the army in 1914, seemingly destined for success. He was bipolar and suffered from manic depression. He loved the Gloucester countryside and would go on ecstatic walks there, but also had two major nervous breakdowns, the first before the war (1913) and the second at the very end of the war (1918). He was suicidal during both and was discharged in 1918. His life was tragic after the end of the war: he was admitted to an insane asylum in 1922 and stayed there until he died in 1937.
To His Love: The poem addresses the lover of the soldier who has died.
“He’s gone… useless indeed”: A blunt and mournful statement of loss; a sense that all earlier plans have been destroyed.
“We’ll walk no more on Cotswold / Where the sheep feed / Quietly…”: the Cotswolds are a famously beautiful part of the English countryside, near where Gurney grew up. Like many of the WWI poets, nature and the countryside provided consoling memories and inspiration, when contrasted to the horrors of war.
“so quick”: quick here takes its older meaning, ‘full of life’.
“His body… is not as you knew it”: The sinister connotations of this euphemism— that the soldier’s body has been maimed or blown apart— provides a grisly hint of what has happened to the soldier at the hands of mechanized weapons, probably shelling.
“on Severn river / Under the blue…”: A powerful contrast between this peaceful image and the horror of what has happened to the soldier. Peaceful and horrific memories struggle with each other here (the Severn is the river that runs through Gloucestershire. Gurney contrasted two rivers in the title of his first poetry collection, Severn and Somme, with broadly the same meaning).
“You would not know him now…”: The ellipsis here seems to suggest that the speaker doesn’t want to pursue that description of the soldier’s body when talking to his lover. Note the subdued tone the varying ‘O’ sounds give the line; and the way the the ‘n’s give the line a stuttering rhythm. This ingenious use of alliteration and assonance can be traced throughout the poem.
“he died / Nobly”: the speaker quickly turns from thinking of the dead body to the noble manner of his death– doing his duty with chivalry.
“cover him over / With violets of pride / Purple”: The flowers will cover him like a shroud. The purple of the violets, like the soldier “from Severn side”, symbolise pride as purple is a colour associated with kingship.
“Cover him, cover him soon!”: The exclaimed repetition of ‘cover him’ shows the desperation and revulsion of the speaker.
“with thick-set / Masses of memoried flowers—” The flowers must cover him ‘thickly’ to hide the horror of the body underneath. Memories of the man fight against the traumatic image of the maimed body: the flowers symbolising happier times on the Severn. This is also, in psychological terms, an account of what Freud termed repression: to turn away from, censor or bury a memory.
“Hide that red wet / Thing”: The imprecision of description of the ‘red wet Thing’— his friend’s bloody and maimed body— suggests the unspeakable violence done to it.
“I must somehow forget”: The last word demonstrates the tension between remembrance and forgetting that the poem says is necessary for all soldiers who have seen the consequences of bloody combat.
[ANTHOLOGY NOTE: Gurney is among the group of British Soldier-Poet ‘greats’ that Stallworthy places together in the middle of his selection of WWI poets. His biography seems important to this selection: Gurney’s subsequent madness makes this a poignant choice of a poem about dealing with the horrors of war; the musicality of the poem, with its use of assonance and alliteration, is also appropriate to the life of this composer.]
6 thoughts on “To His Love – Ivor Gurney”
what’s the message of this poem??
I think that this poem is written in a very smart way by Gurney as even though in the first read it may sound calm and slow paced, analysing it and understanding its deeper connotations portrays to the reader the state of mind of the soldiers who have to experience the deaths of their fellow soldiers who they have spent most of their time with. The use of the enjambment may also imply the mental instability of Gurney as said above. The use of the elipsis and not laying down all the information to the reader, it kind of works as an anigma and makes the reader imagine of the worst. The last line holds uo the poem as an whole as it reveals the point of view of the soldiers. The dead soldier may be no more but the horrific image which have been captured into the minds of the soldiers and the memories spent with them will be immortal. No matter how hard they try, it will be futile.
this is indeed a very sad poem, reinforcing the unjust, unspeakable violence that has been done to the soldier but I think it also has a patriotic touch to it. “…with violets of pride/ purple from Severn side.” as sir has mentioned purple is a color worn by kings, suggesting that this soldier did not die in vain.”Severn side” the sibilance could reflect the soldiers love for england.
This poem really reminds me of Glory of women ‘his body that was so quick is not as you knew it’ is a very harsh reality for the loved one of a soldier to comes to terms with it remind me if when Sassoon described a soldier to women as ‘his face is trodden deeper in the mud’ both these poems give a sense of harsh realities that women would have had to face.
Not sure if I read this poem as three lines of free verse (ABC) and a rhyming couplet. Line two of each stanza rhymes with the final two, so ABCBB seems more what’s going on. Given the fair number of highly adept subsitutions, ranging from trochees and anapests to at least one pyrrich/spondee and a elegant use of feminine or hypermetrical line endings throughout, the lines seem to intentionally alternate from trimeter to dimeter — lines 1,3, and 5 trimeter, and 2 and 4 dimeter — breathtaking for a lyric this brief. (Also, the “er” endings of line 3 in stanzas 2, 3, and 4 provide further linkage.)